The gerund has the same form as the present participle : speaking , working , running.....it can be used in the fallowing ways : *as subject of sentence *as complement of verb *after prepositions *after certain verb Gerund&Infinitive : AB
The verbs which may take either infinitive or gerund ( advise , agree , allow , begin , cease , continue , forget , hate , intend , like , love , mean , need , permit , recommend , start , stop , try , used , want .....) A- With begin , start , continue , cease , either infinitive of gerund may be used without any difference in meaning but the infinitive is more usual with verbs of knowing and understanding and the verb matter : I began working / I began to work B- After can/could eighter gerund of infinitive can be used : I can't bear waiting/ to wait , but when the infinitive refers to adeliberate action the expression implies that the subject's feelings prevent him from performing the action : I couldn't bear to tell him. C- After intend an infinitive I intend to sell it Is more usual than a gerund : I intend selling it The infinitive is necessary when we have intend + object this is found only in formal English. I intend him to take over the department . D- With advise , allow , permit , recommend , if the person concerned is mentioned we use the infinitive : -He advised me to apply at once -She recommends housewives to buy the big tins -They don't allow us to park here But if this person is not mentioned the gerund is used : -He advised applying at once -She recommends buying the big tins -They don't allow parking . The gerund after allow and permit can't have an object so if we want an allow/permit + verb + object construction we must use the infinitive and mention the person concerned : -They allowed their tenants to use the garage . The Passive Gerund AB
Present : being written Perfect : having been written -He was punished by being sent to bed without any supper -I remember being taken to Paris as a small child -The safe showed no signs of having been tonched .